Not So Great Expectations

Whatever his other merits and demerits, Conrad Black has made some noticeable contributions to the development of the law of justiciability in Canada. The latest came this week, in the form of a judgment of the Federal Court of Canada, in Black v. Advisory Council for the Order of Canada, 2012 FC 1234.

The first had come in Black v. Canada (Prime Minister), (2001) 54 OR (3d) 215  (ON CA), in which Mr. Black, as he then was, tried to challenge the advice that Jean Chrétien, then Prime Minister of Canada, give to the Queen regarding Mr. Black’s possible appointment to a peerage in the United Kingdom. The Court of Appeal for Ontario held that the matter was not justiciable.

Now, decade, a peerage, and a couple of criminal convictions later, Lord Black is trying to dissuade the Advisory Council for the Order of Canada from recommending the termination of his appointment to the Order due to his criminal convictions in the United States. Having notified Lord Black that it was considering making such a recommendation to the Governor General (who makes all the final decisions regarding the appointment to and termination from the Order), the Council invited him to make submissions on the matter, in writing. Lord Black, however, demanded an oral hearing, arguing that it was necessary to let him explain why his convictions were unjust, and thus not grounds for terminating his appointment. The Council refused, and Lord Black applied for judicial review of the refusal.

The first question facing Justice de Montigny was whether the application for judicial review was premature. Normally, a court will not review an interlocutory decision of an administrative tribunal―such as whether to allow a person to make written or oral submissions. These decisions can be reviewed as part of the review of the tribunal’s final decision. However, this case is exceptional: the Council’s final recommendation is not a “decision” at all, and so is not subject to review for that reason, while the Governor General’s eventual decision to withdraw an honour such as an appointment to the Order of Canada is discretionary and probably non-reviewable, so that there is no juncture at which the Council’s decision not to give Lord Black the opportunity to make oral submissions could be reviewed. The time to review it is now or never.

If, that is, it is the sort of decision that can be reviewed by courts at all―if it is justiciable. The decision to grant an honour is certainly not. It is made in the exercise of the royal prerogative over honours―a discretion belonging to the monarch (though in most cases exercised on the advice of others political actors, such as the Prime Minister or the Cabinet). That in itself does not make it non-justiciable. The question is rather whether it is purely discretionary and political, or concerns rights or legitimate expectations. The grant of an honour does not. It is inherently subjective and motivated by moral and political considerations rather than legal ones; it is a matter of discretion, not right or entitlement. And, says Justice de Montigny, so is the decision to withdraw an honour. Lord Black could have no expectation of remaining an Officer of the Order of Canada forever; indeed, the Order has an explicit policy stating that the Council will review the membership of those who have been found guilty of a criminal offence. However, the policy also lays down a specific procedure for such a review. And that, says Justice de Montigny, is what makes this case justiciable. Lord Black could have no legitimate expectations as to the substance of the review of his membership, but he could have such an expectation about the procedure that would be followed. (This is also the difference between this case and the 2001 one: there, there was no predetermined procedure for the Prime Minister to follow.)

The trouble for Lord Black is that the review procedure prescribed by the Council’s policy affords the person concerned an opportunity to make written, but not oral submissions. An oral hearing is possible, but not required. Therefore there can be no legitimate expectation that one will be held. Nor is there anything wrong with that, says Justice de Montigny, either as a general matter, or in Lord Black’s specific case. Generally speaking, a hearing is not required to make an administrative procedure fair, even one that can have very grave consequences, such as a person’s deportation from Canada. Hearings are generally required only in proceedings where credibility is at stake. Lord Black claimed that this was his case because what is really at issue is his innocence of the misdeeds of which he was found guilty by American courts. Not so, says Justice de Montigny. His reasons on this point are a little confusing, because he says both that the Council cannot second-guess the decisions of the U.S. Courts and that

if, as [Lord Black] submits, he was treated unfairly in the American justice system, there is nothing preventing him from making that argument in writing.  …  He has provided the Council with a copy of his book on the subject of his convictions which runs to more than 500 pages.

In any event, the fairness of the U.S. criminal proceedings does not depend on Lord Black’s credibility.

In the end, then, Lord Black was no luckier than 11 years ago. But maybe he can console himself with the fact that this time, his claim was, at least, found to be justiciable.

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